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Click to see enlarged image.During the past year, the Department of Archives and Special Collections and the Industrial Economics Research Institute have been collaborating to preserve the remarkable steel legacy compiled by Father William T. Hogan, S.J., who passed away on January 12, 2002. During a distinguished 52-year career here at Fordham, Father Hogan earned a well-deserved reputation as a true innovator in economic education and came to be known the world over as the "Steel Priest." What is envisioned as the "Hogan Steel Archive" is to be created in his honor as a permanent, online educational, historical, and information resource, accessible to students, researchers, scholars, and to all those seeking knowledge on the domestic and world steel industries.

Fordham's Steel Priest

Born in the South Bronx in 1919, William Thomas Hogan was a product of the Bronx public schools, P.S. 72 and James Monroe High. During the Depression, he delivered The Bronx Home News to help support his family and then pay his tuition at Fordham, where he would graduate college cum laude and eventually earn an M.A. in economics and, after becoming a Jesuit priest, a Ph. D.

In the late 1940's, his doctoral work would take him to Pittsburgh, then the nation's and the world's steel capital, where he lived at Duquesne University and worked at United States Steel Corporation in researching his dissertation on steel productivity. It was the first detailed study on the subject ever made, and his methods of productivity measurement were adopted by the U.S. Department of Labor and were detailed in his first book, Productivity in the Blast-Furnace and Open-Hearth Segments of the Steel Industry. Published in 1950, the book would forever identify Father Hogan with steel.

It was also in 1950 that Father founded Fordham's Industrial Economics Research Institute and initiated an interrelated research and teaching program in Industrial Economics. The innovative curriculum he developed served as a model that in time was integrated into the economics courses of 112 colleges and universities throughout 30 states and the District of Columbia. In 1954, his lectures were published in his second book, The Development of American Heavy Industry in the Twentieth Century.

Father Hogan's innovative teaching approach employed concrete examples drawn from everyday events in business and industry not only to demonstrate industrial interdependence, but also to give the student an appreciation of the size and complexity of basic heavy industry and of the labor and capital inputs needed to sustain its operation. The educational value of this approach was that in his words: "It provides a supplement to courses in economic theory, and thus gives students more opportunity to check theoretical principles against real-world business practices."

Over the years, both at Fordham and as a visiting professor at Penn State and Purdue, Father Hogan taught about the interdependence of the steel, automobile, railroad, petroleum, and utility industries and kept his course content current by means of research conducted by the Industrial Economics Research Institute, often with the participation of student interns, who were able to learn first hand just how basic heavy industry functions. Much of the Institute's research demonstrated the pivotal role of the steel industry as a catalyst for economic development, and throughout his career, Father used his knowledge and worked tirelessly to foster international cooperation and understanding in the steel business, earning his worldwide reputation as the "Steel Priest."

During the 1960's, Father devoted considerable time and effort to studying the economic impact of the depreciation-tax laws on steel and other industries that rely on long-lived equipment, emphasizing the need for reforms to spur capital investment. He was instrumental in passage of the investment-tax credit and other reforms proposed by President Kennedy, testifying on the subject on numerous occasions before legislative committees of the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. In 1967, his third book, Depreciation Policies and Resultant Problems was published.

In the late 1960's, he served as a member of President Nixon's Task Force on Business Taxation and was a consultant to the Council of Economic Advisors to the President. In all, he counseled five U.S. presidents on tax and steel matters and served as an advisor to many agencies of federal, state and local government.

In 1971, Father Hogan's landmark, five-volume work was published. Having been in preparation for more than 15 years, his Economic History of the Iron and Steel Industry in the United States examines industry developments from 1860 to 1971. Father periodically updated his five volumes with a series of companion books as follows: The 1970's: Critical Years for Steel, 1972; World Steel in the 1980's: A Case of Survival, 1982; Steel in the United States: Restructuring to Compete, 1984; Minimills and Integrated Mills: A Comparison of Steelmaking in the United States, 1987; Global Steel in the 1990's: Growth or Decline, 1990; Capital Investment in Steel: A World Plan for the 1990's, 1992; and Steel in the 21st Century: Competition Forges a New World Order, 1994.

Father's last two books were The Steel Industry of China: Its Present Status and Future Potential, published in 1999, and The POSCO Strategy: A Blueprint for World Steel's Future, published in 2001 within months of his passing. His final book reflects how greatly he admired the success of the Korean people in starting from virtually nothing to build the world's leading steel company. He traveled to Korea often and watched as his lifetime of teaching about steel's key role in economic development was so effectively put into practice.

Over the years, Father visited most of the world's steel-producing facilities, delivered papers at steel conferences, and advised many steel managements. He had the distinction of having attended every annual meeting in the 34-year history of the International Iron and Steel Institute, which named him one of only two honorary members.

In 1985, the American Iron and Steel Institute awarded him the Gary Memorial Medal, the industry's highest honor, otherwise given only to top steel executives. The medal was presented in recognition of "uniquely distinguished contributions to knowledge that have advanced understanding of the iron and steel industry."

In 1987, he was made a Distinguished Life Member of the American Society of Metals, and in 1990, the William T. Hogan Annual Lecture Series was established by the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers. In 1992, Korea's President Roh Tae-woo presented him with the prestigious Gold Tower of the Order of Industrial Merit, the highest business award the Korean government bestows. Finally, in 1996, Father received his most recent degree, an honorary Doctor of Laws from his beloved alma mater, Fordham.

In profiling Father Hogan for Company magazine, Father George McCauley, one of his fellow Jesuits wrote as follows: "The New York Times got it wrong when it called him, 'The Boswell of the steel industry.' He was its Johnson not its Boswell. He had a vast, direct knowledge of the industry's intricate workings, from the smelter crews, ironmakers and sheet rollers he'd meet on the mill floor to executives who welcomed him into their lofty offices.

"He had shrewd insight into the directions available to the industry in the shifting circumstances of supply and demand and in times of fierce international competition. Miraculously, he had the trust of both steel producers and steel importers. Government officials, too, knew they were getting the real goods whenever Father Hogan came before them.

"For all that, the Steel Priest lived up to both sides of that facile sobriquet. His black suit and Roman collar seemed welded to his skin, probably turning a few heads in some circles he traveled." But knowing the power of steel, he " saw his work as a way of getting people out of their hopelessness - building lives, putting a little security and dignity within their reach."

The Hogan Steel Archive

Starting in February, 2002, the Industrial Economics Research Institute packed and shipped 60 library boxes from its Dealy Hall offices and Father Hogan's residence to the Department of Archives and Special Collections in the Walsh Library. The boxes contain tens of thousands of steel-related documents, hundreds of steel books and references, and personal papers and correspondence relating to the domestic and world steel industries. They also contain an extensive series of files on the depreciation-tax laws and the research projects performed by Fordham's Institute for Urban Studies in which Father Hogan was an active participant. In recent months, we have been working to categorize, assemble and prepare these materials for archiving.

The Hogan Steel Archive will contain Father's extensive collection of books on steel, including his own, his articles, speeches and congressional testimony, his awards and memorabilia, together with data and documentation on a comprehensive list of steel subjects and on the steel industries in some 40 countries. This information encompasses economic, technical, historical, and photographic references dating back to the second half of the 19th century, many of which are not available anywhere else.

To be included in the Archive, for example, is a collection of Annual Reports from every major steel-producing company in the United States from 1900 to the present, every Annual Statistical Report published by the American Iron and Steel Institute from 1916 to the present, and every AISI Iron and Steel Works Directory dating back to 1890.

The Archive will also contain an extensive collection of other reference works from such organizations as the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers, the International Iron and Steel Institute, the British Iron and Steel Federation, Wirtschaftsvereinigung Stahl, the Japan iron and Steel Federation, the Korea Iron and Steel Association, Instituto Latinoamericano del Fierro y el Acero (ILAFA), Instituto Brasileiro de Siderurgia (IBS), the American Iron Ore Association, the United Nations, the American Metal Market, and Metal Bulletin.

These and other steel references and documents were collected by Father Hogan and the Industrial Economics Research Institute starting in the late 1940's for use in publishing more than 25 books, authored both by Father and other Institute researchers, in preparing numerous articles and speeches, and in conducting more than 150 studies on various aspects of the steel industry and interrelated industries.

Some of these studies were initiated by the Institute, and others were conducted for various federal, state, and local government agencies in the United States, for such organizations as the United Nations, World Bank, Interamerican Development Bank, and for companies in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela, the United Kingdom, Spain, Germany, Ireland, Austria, Luxembourg, Italy, Greece, Sweden, South Africa, Turkey, Taiwan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, India, and China.

While working during the early 1960's to disseminate knowledge of the steel industry among developing countries, the Institute collaborated with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization to prepare a Manual on the Modern Iron and Steel Industry, and some 20 years later joined with the United Nations Environment Programme in conducting a technical review of the direct-reduction method of ironmaking, which was being employed principally in developing countries.

In addition to the aforementioned document files on the steel industries in some 40 countries, the Archive will contain files on past and existing U.S. steel companies and on such steel subjects as capacity and production, energy use, environmental control, labor, minimills, markets, productivity, raw materials, scrap, service centers, stainless steel, technology and facilities, and trade.

The document files on the markets for steel contain information on automobiles, appliances, capital goods, construction, containers, oil and gas, the railroads, and other end uses, and the files on technology and facilities encompass the blast furnace and smelting alternatives, BOF steelmaking, coke and cokemaking, continuous casting, direct reduction, electric-furnace steelmaking, electrification, open-hearth steelmaning, refractories, rolling mills and processing equipment, and tinplate manufacturing.

Within the next few months, once the documents, references, books and other items on hand have been presorted, they will be catalogued and computer-keyed for ready identification and accessibility as the Hogan Steel Archive moves closer to becoming a reality. Achieving this goal will insure that Father Hogan and his extraordinary life's work are memorialized in a manner that continues to advance knowledge of the industry he loved so much and about which he taught here at Fordham from 1950 through the fall semester of 2001.




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